By Shawn Leigh Alexander
In January 1890, journalist T. Thomas Fortune stood earlier than a delegation of African American activists in Chicago and declared, "We comprehend our rights and feature the braveness to guard them," as jointly they shaped the Afro-American League, the nation's first nationwide civil rights association. Over the following twenty years, Fortune and his fellow activists equipped, agitated, and, within the method, created the basis for the fashionable civil rights movement.
An military of Lions: The Civil Rights fight sooner than the NAACP lines the background of this primary iteration of activists and the enterprises they shaped to offer the main finished account of black America's fight for civil rights from the tip of Reconstruction to the formation of the nationwide organization for the development of coloured humans in 1909. right here a bunch of leaders overlooked via posterity—Bishop Alexander Walters, Mary Church Terrell, Jesse Lawson, Lewis G. Jordan, Kelly Miller, George H. White, Frederick McGhee, Archibald Grimké—worked along the extra general figures of Ida B. Wells-Barnett, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Booker T. Washington, who're considered via a clean lens.
As Jim Crow curtailed modes of political protest and criminal redress, individuals of the Afro-American League and the organisations that shaped in its wake—including the Afro-American Council, the Niagara stream, the structure League, and the Committee of Twelve—used propaganda, ethical suasion, boycotts, lobbying, electoral place of work, and the courts, in addition to the decision for self-defense, to finish disfranchisement, segregation, and racial violence. within the method, the League and the agencies it spawned supplied the ideological and strategic blueprint of the NAACP and the fight for civil rights within the 20th century, demonstrating that there has been major and potent agitation in the course of "the age of accommodation."
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An Army of Lions: The Civil Rights Struggle Before the NAACP (Politics and Culture in Modern America) by Shawn Leigh Alexander